Scientific Name: P21
Clinical Test Expectation: Achieve the highest state of cognitive functioning.Help stroke victims recover brain function.Aid neural regeneration in the case of Alzheimers
MG Strength: 50mg per vial
Detailed Product Information
Development of neurotrophic peptidergic drugs that can mimic neurotrophins and promote neurogenesis and maturation of newborn cells into mature functional neurons represents an exciting therapeutic opportunity for treatment of Alzheimer disease and other learning and memory disorders as well as enhancing cognition of normal individuals. Here we report the design of a peptidergic compound, Ac-DGGLAG-NH2, called P21, when administered peripherally, enhanced learning as well as both short-term and spatial reference memories of normal adult C57Bl6 mice. P21 induced enhancement of neurogenesis and maturation of newly born neurons in the granular cell layer and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus.
As life expectancy in industrialized countries has been increasing by two years per decade in the last 20 years and is predicted to further surge, age-associated dementias like Alzheimer disease (AD) are becoming more and more heavy medical, economic, and social burden in modern society. AD affects over five million in the US and over twenty million worldwide. AD is the most prevalent dementia, followed by vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. AD has an average progression of 7–10 years, and is both multifactorial and heterogeneous. Despite AD being a severe public health problem, no neuroprotective and specific treatment is yet available. Numerous targets for pharmacological therapies of AD are currently under investigation.
To maintain or even restore cognitive health and memory is the ultimate goal in the treatment of dementia. Cerebrolysin (EBEWE Pharma, Unterach, Austria), a preparation of peptides and amino acids produced by standardized enzymatic digestion of porcine brain protein, has been shown to improve memory in patients with mild to moderate cognitive impairment. This drug has also been shown to display neurotrophic activity in vitro and in animal models of neurodegeneration.Cerebrolysin enhances dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis in normal adult rats and an APP transgenic model of AD
The neurogenic effect of Cerebrolysin might be based upon the action of peptides in the preparation that are proteolytic products of neurotrophic factors. In a previous study, we found that Cerebrolysin contains peptides which react with neutralizing antibodies to human CNTF, GDNF, IGF-1 and IGF-2. More specifically, the CNTF neutralizing antibody can inhibit the neurogenic effects of Cerebrolysin. Based on epitope mapping of neutralizing antibodies to human CNTF, we found that an 11-mer peptide; Peptide 6 (Ac-VGDGGLFEKKL-NH2) and a subsequence of it, Peptide 6c (Ac-DGGL-NH2), enhanced hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, increased neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity in normal adult mice. Although peptides in general are readily bioavailable, systemic degradation through proteases and relatively poor blood–brain-barrier (BBB) permeability pose challenges in rendering peptides “druggable”. To address these design goals, we added adamantane building blocks to the C-terminus or both C- and N-termini of Peptide 6c. These bulky, highly lipophilic tricyclic alkane building blocks can increase the BBB permeability of peptides and block enzymatic degradation through exopeptidases. In the present study, we show that when administered peripherally to normal adult mice, the pentamer Ac-DGGLAG-NH2, called P21, significantly enhanced cognition, increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal progenitors and promoted the expression of synaptic vesicle proteins, synaptophysin and synapsin I.
Mixing and our recommended dosage
You inject 2ml water into the vial of P21 from the water vial. 1 full syringe is 1ml. You then wait for the vial powder content to dissolve ON ITS OWN. DO NOT SHAKE THE VIAL TO MIX POWDER. Once dissolved and clear in colour you draw out 0.2 on the syringe each morning before breakfast and inject it into the tummy under the skin into the fatty skin layer. A vial should last 10 days.
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